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- Explain the mode of degradation and toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons to microorganisms.
- Describe gene transfer in the environment through conjugation, transduction and transformation.
- Explain in details why it is necessary to control the transfer of specific microbial genes in the environment.
- Describe with suitable diagrams the method of gene amplification through polymerase chain reaction.
- What is genetic recombination? Explain how new genes are integrated into a bacterial host.