Succinctly describe the clinical and research benefits of PCR and DNA microarray technology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.
Outline any three benefits of real time PCR technology over the conventional PCR.
Richard Trump has been sick and hospitalized for about 3 months now. He was suspected of having respiratory tract infection – with some signs of persistent productive cough coupled with intermittent blood. The doctor in charge of Mr. Trump recommended Mantoux test to be carried out to ascertain the severity and infectiousness of his case. As a clinical microbiologist in the making: (a) what is the likely causative agent of Mr. Trump’s ailment. (b) Why was Mantoux test recommended for Mr. Trump’s case? (c) What is the significance of a positive Mantoux test result? (d) If the Mantoux test result is negative, what is also its significance?
Succinctly describe the clinical importance of Widal test.
Define the phrase agglutination.
What is a neutralization antibody?
Briefly differentiate antigens from antibodies.
What is the full meaning of the acronym ELISA and RIA?
Enumerate the five (5) types of immunoglobulins with their respective symbols or short form in parenthesis.
Outline and briefly explain the first antibody produced in the body upon the first encounter of an antigen (pathogen). Also mention the next important antibody involved in building an immunological memory against the invading pathogen.
Using suitable examples of their causative agents; briefly explain zoonoses.