Exam Questions / Microbiology


Written by MicroDok
  1. In molecular biology applications, especially in the transfer of a gene of interest from a donor cell to a recipient cell, the same restriction enzyme (endonuclease) is used to nick both the plasmid vector and the DNA or gene of interest during gene cloning experiment. Why is this so?
  2. What is the full meaning of the acronym, MALDI-TOF?
  3. Genomics and proteomics are high-throughput techniques that have great applications in biotechnology and medicine. Write succinctly on the definition and significance of proteomics and genomics in biotechnology and medicine.
  4. Describe briefly the importance and applications of PCR technique in the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases.
  5. Enumerate and describe briefly any four (4) applications of DNA microarray technique.
  6. Outline three (3) applications of DNA hybridization technique.
  7. Highlight the full meaning of the acronym NGS; and state the importance of the NGS technique in laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases.
  8. Define the terms ‘gene probe’ and ‘reporter genes’; and briefly state their individual significance in molecular biology techniques/applications.
  9. X-ray the application of Bacillus thuringiensis in the creation of pest resistant varieties of crops.
  10. Using suitable examples, X-ray the terms ‘mutagenesis’ and ‘mutagens”.
  11. Enumerate five (5) goals of functional genomics analysis.
  12. Outline three (3) applications of gene mapping techniques.
  14. How does the prokaryotic genome differ from the eukaryotic genome?
  15. Enumerate and explain the four (4) structures of proteins
  16. Highlight any five (5) applications of recombinant DNA technology
  17. Describe in details the significance of conjugation, transformation and transduction in the transfer and/or acquisition of antibiotic resistant genes in microbial community.
  18. Write the full meaning of the acronyms: ‘GMOs’, and ‘GMFs’; and briefly explain their individual significance in ensuring food security in the 21st century.
  19. Why is gene regulation important to the cell of a microbe?
  20. Explain how gene therapy can be used to remedy the abnormality observed in the gene or genetic makeup of a named organism.
  21. Succinctly explain the differences between introns and exons, while stating their individual significance in gene expression.
  22. A boy was born with a rare genetic defect that resulted in adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency. After 10 years, the child’s immune system still remained weakened. ADA is required for the synthesis of functional B and T cells – which are both critical for a functional immune system. The doctors recommended the replacement of the defective gene with a functional one in order to restore the synthesis of ADA in the boy. As an intending molecular biologist, which aspect of genetic engineering is best suitable to handle this medical condition? Define this aspect of generic engineering briefly; and mention the two (2) types of it.
  23. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is a molecular biology tool used for the amplification of a particular gene of interest. Elucidate briefly the 3 important steps of this technique while taking note of their varying temperature conditions.
  24. Define the following terms: Gene; Plasmid; Genome; Restriction enzyme; Proteomics.
  25. Enumerate and explain briefly any (4) areas in which genetic engineering can be applied in the practice of agriculture.

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