Succinctly explain the term drug resistance, and describe briefly its effects on antimicrobial therapy and total patient outcome.
How does innate drug resistance differ from acquired drug resistance?
Write a short note on conjugation, transduction and transformation as genetic transfer mechanisms via which microbes acquire or transfer drug resistance genes in their habitat.
Enumerate and describe any four (4) mechanisms via which microbes exhibit resistance to antimicrobial agents.
Define pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Enumerate any five (5) factors that influence the uptake of drug in the body.
What is selective toxicity?
After the development of a novel drug, the drug is usually patented and the sponsor or first manufacturer is licensed to market the drug for a given period of time. However, after the expiration of this license, other manufacturers can go into the production of the same drug. But the generic drug must be comparable to the brand named drugs in of some qualities. Outline any five (5) of these qualities that you know.
Based on their mechanisms of action, antibiotics/antimicrobials target specific sites on pathogenic microbes; and this leads to the inhibition of their growth or death. Enumerate and describe briefly any four (4) target sites of drug in a bacterium.