Differentiate between antimicrobial agent and antibiotic?
Mention five properties of an antimicrobial agent.
Succinctly explain 4 mechanisms of drug resistance.
Quinolones (e.g. nalidixic acid) target the DNA of bacteria by inhibiting an important enzyme responsible for DNA replication in the target bacterium. Mention the name of this enzyme, and briefly explain the mechanism of action of quinolones.
Explain selective toxicity in relation to antibiotics?
Mention 5 target sites of antibiotics in pathogens.
Outline 5 antimetabolites that you know.
Explain the mechanism of action of beta-lactam antibiotics?
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacterium that contains mycolic acid in its cell wall. Mention 3 antibiotics universally used for the treatment of TB.
Briefly explain the terms preservatives, sanitizers, antiseptics and disinfectants.
Explain the significance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinical medicine.
Differentiate between bacteriostatic agents and bacteriocidal agents.
Briefly explain synergism in relation to antimicrobial combinations.
Outline 5 host factors to be considered in the administration of antibiotics.
How can antibiotic resistance be prevented?
Differentiate between narrow spectrum drugs and broad spectrum drugs?
Outline 5 molecular techniques that can be used to assay drug levels or concentration in a patient’s specimen.
Outline the natural sources of penicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin.
List 5 classes of antibacterial agents that you know.
Why are there fewer antifungal agents than antibacterial agents?
Describe in details and with examples the mechanisms of action of antibacterial drugs that affect protein synthesis, cell wall synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis and cell membrane synthesis.
X-ray the different routes of drug administration and how to measure drug concentration in a patient’s body.
Explain in details the mechanisms of action of a named antiviral drug and antifungal drug.
Briefly explain the measures of preventing the emergence and spread of drug resistant organisms in both the community and hospital environment.
Explain in details the mechanisms of drug resistance in pathogenic microorganisms to antimicrobial agents.