Write a short note on pharmaceutical microbiology.
What is sterility?
Succinctly describe sterility tests and x-ray its importance in pharmaceutical productions.
X-ray biological products while giving suitable examples.
Succinctly describe water for injection.
What is a pyrogen?
What is the main characteristic clinical feature of pyrogens in samples?
Describe briefly the significance of lipid A molecule or moiety in Gram negative bacteria.
Differentiate between endogenous pyrogens and exogenous pyrogens.
What is a pyrogen test used for?
Mention the full meaning of the acronym “LAL”.
Succinctly describe the biological significance of Limulus polyphemus
What is quality control?
Explain briefly the significance of quality assurance in pharmaceutical productions.
How does quality control differ from quality assurance?
Enumerate any five agencies or organizations that regulate food and drug productions and mention the respective countries where they operate.
As a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Personnel working in a government Food and Drug Regulation Agency, explain in details how raw materials, water, air supply, equipment and personnel could constitute a major source of microbial contamination in the production processes of a food/pharmaceutical company.
Enumerate the guidelines for the principles of GMP.
Exhaustively discuss how raw materials, water, personnel, equipment, manufacturing premises and air could be major sources of contamination during pharmaceutical productions.
Enumerate the rules governing GMP.
Succinctly describe air monitoring and its significance in industrial productions.
Differentiate between passive air monitoring and active air monitoring.
What is water quality?
What is the bioavailability of a drug?
What is drug interaction?
Differentiate between drug-drug interaction and drug-herb interaction.
How does synergistic drug interaction differ from antagonistic drug interaction?
Write a detailed note on pharmacokinetics in relation to drug metabolism in vivo.
Succinctly describe the different routes of drug administration.
What is antibiotic selective pressure?
Using suitable examples, describe in details antibiotic resistance.
Differentiate between vertical transmission and horizontal transmission of resistance genes.
X-ray the different types of antibiotic resistance.
Describe conjugation, transformation and transduction as mechanisms of genetic transfer in relation to antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
Outline and briefly explain the different mechanisms or ways via which microbes ward-off the antimicrobial onslaught of potent antibiotics.
What is the full meaning of ESBL, MBL, VRSA, MRSA, VISA and VRE?
Describe the factors that contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance in the environment.
What is the impact of antibiotic resistance to the economy of any nation?
Outline the effects of antibiotic resistance to both the individual and the public.
Succinctly describe how antibiotic resistance can best be controlled and prevented.
Using suitable examples, succinctly describe multidrug resistant bacteria.
Write a short note on MBL and ESBL organisms.
Explain the clinical significance of MRSA.
What are susceptibility test disks?
What is disinfection?
What is an antiseptic?
Enumerate the various ways of achieving sterilization in the microbiology laboratory.
Succinctly describe the medical significance of preservation.
What is sanitation?
What are phytochemicals?
Enumerate six phytochemicals found in plants.
What is the major use of rotary evaporator?
Describe soxhlet extractor and its significance in processing plant materials for determining their antimicrobial efficacy.
What is soxhlet extraction?
Write on the merits and demerits of the soxhlet extraction process.
What is DMSO?
What is the major function of the thimble and condenser in the soxhlet extractor?