Pharmaceutical microbiology questions

  • Write a short note on pharmaceutical microbiology.
  • What is sterility?
  • Define sterilization.
  • Succinctly describe sterility tests and x-ray its importance in pharmaceutical productions.
  • X-ray biological products while giving suitable examples.
  • Succinctly describe water for injection.
  • What is a pyrogen?
  • What is the main characteristic clinical feature of pyrogens in samples?
  • Define pyrogenicity.
  • Define cytokines.
  • Describe briefly the significance of lipid A molecule or moiety in Gram negative bacteria.
  • Differentiate between endogenous pyrogens and exogenous pyrogens.
  • What is a pyrogen test used for?
  • Mention the full meaning of the acronym “LAL”.
  • Succinctly describe the biological significance of Limulus polyphemus
  • What is quality control?
  • Explain briefly the significance of quality assurance in pharmaceutical productions.
  • How does quality control differ from quality assurance?
  • Enumerate any five agencies or organizations that regulate food and drug productions and mention the respective countries where they operate.
  • As a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Personnel working in a government Food and Drug Regulation Agency, explain in details how raw materials, water, air supply, equipment and personnel could constitute a major source of microbial contamination in the production processes of a food/pharmaceutical company.
  • Enumerate the guidelines for the principles of GMP.
  • Exhaustively discuss how raw materials, water, personnel, equipment, manufacturing premises and air could be major sources of contamination during pharmaceutical productions.
  • Enumerate the rules governing GMP.
  • Succinctly describe air monitoring and its significance in industrial productions.
  • Differentiate between passive air monitoring and active air monitoring.
  • What is water quality?
  • What is the bioavailability of a drug?
  • Define excipients.
  • What is drug interaction?
  • Differentiate between drug-drug interaction and drug-herb interaction.
  • How does synergistic drug interaction differ from antagonistic drug interaction?
  • Write a detailed note on pharmacokinetics in relation to drug metabolism in vivo.
  • Define pharmacodynamics.
  • Succinctly describe the different routes of drug administration.
  • What is antibiotic selective pressure?
  • Using suitable examples, describe in details antibiotic resistance.
  • Differentiate between vertical transmission and horizontal transmission of resistance genes.
  • X-ray the different types of antibiotic resistance.
  • Describe conjugation, transformation and transduction as mechanisms of genetic transfer in relation to antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
  • Outline and briefly explain the different mechanisms or ways via which microbes ward-off the antimicrobial onslaught of potent antibiotics.
  • What is the full meaning of ESBL, MBL, VRSA, MRSA, VISA and VRE?
  • Describe the factors that contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance in the environment.
  • What is the impact of antibiotic resistance to the economy of any nation?
  • Outline the effects of antibiotic resistance to both the individual and the public.
  • Succinctly describe how antibiotic resistance can best be controlled and prevented.
  • Using suitable examples, succinctly describe multidrug resistant bacteria.
  • Write a short note on MBL and ESBL organisms.
  • Explain the clinical significance of MRSA.
  • What are susceptibility test disks?
  • What is disinfection?
  • Define disinfectant.
  • Define antisepsis.
  • What is an antiseptic?
  • Enumerate the various ways of achieving sterilization in the microbiology laboratory.
  • Succinctly describe the medical significance of preservation.
  • What is sanitation?
  • Define sterilizers.
  • What are phytochemicals?
  • Enumerate six phytochemicals found in plants.
  • What is the major use of rotary evaporator?
  • Describe soxhlet extractor and its significance in processing plant materials for determining their antimicrobial efficacy.
  • What is soxhlet extraction?
  • Write on the merits and demerits of the soxhlet extraction process.
  • What is DMSO?
  • What is the major function of the thimble and condenser in the soxhlet extractor?

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