Exam Questions / Microbiology

Molecular Biology Questions 1

Written by MicroDok
  1. The four types of nucleotides in DNA are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine. Which of them bind in pairs? (A) Adenine and Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine (B) Adenine and Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine (C) Adenine and Cytosine, Thymine and Guanine (D) All of the above
  2. What does DNA polymerase do? (A) Unwinds a strand of DNA so replication can take place (B) Creates enzymes used in replication (C) Matches the nucleotides on a strand of DNA to their complement (D) Generates chemical signals triggering replication
  3. Which nucleotide does uracil replace in RNA? (A) Adenine (B) Guanine (C) Thymine (D) Cytosine
  4. What is the purpose of mRNA? A) Carrying information for protein synthesis to the cytoplasm B) Storing genetic information while the cell is replicating C) Carrying genetic information between cells D) Indicating the transcription start site.
  5. Why are start and stop sites necessary in transcription? A) It determines what part of mRNA is used in transcription B) It determines the structure of the protein coded in mRNA C) It reduces how often transcription needs to occur for cell function D) Because only the gene being transcribed is necessary
  6. What is translation? A) The conversion of a DNA sequence into an RNA sequence B) The construction of a protein with nucleotides C) The reading of a gene to construct a protein D) The process of converting the information stored in mRNA into protein
  7. What are proteins made of? A) Nucleotides B) Amino Acids C) mRNA D) DNA
  8. What is transfer RNA? A) Transfer RNA collects amino acids from the cell and moves them into the ribosome B) Transfer RNA reads the information stored in mRNA and uses it to synthesize a protein C) Transfer RNA carries information from genes into the ribosome for protein synthesis D) Transfer RNA analyzes a protein in order to create an exact duplicate
  9. What is a codon? A) A sequence of 3 nucleotides that encode an amino acid B) A sequence of 3 nucleotides that encode a gene C) A sequence of 3 amino acids that encode a protein D) A sequence of 3 mRNAs that encode a protein
  10. What is the genetic code? A) A synonym for DNA B) The sequence of nucleotides that a protein is composed of C) The information carried by mRNA D) The set of rules determining which codons code for which amino acids
  11. What is an open reading frame? A) A gap in DNA between genes B) A sequence in DNA or RNA that potentially codes for a protein C) A unit consisting of every 3 nucleotides in a gene D) The sequence of DNA that is currently being read to create RNA
  12. Which one of the following protein structure comprise of helices? A) Primary structure B) Quaternary structure C) Secondary structure D) Tertiary structure
  13. Amino acids in the primary structure are bonded by: A) Covalent bonds B) Hydrogen bonds C) Peptide bonds D) Sulfide bonds
  14. Which one of the following is conserved most during evolution: A) Cellular wall B) Chromosomes C) Proteins D) Protein structures
  15. Typical difference between a Eucaryotic cell and a Procaryotic cell is:                  A) Presence          versus absence of nucleus      C)        Circular versus non-circular DNA B) Cell size     D)        All of the above

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