Succinctly enumerate the procedure of making bacterial smear.
Outline and explain the use of any 5 staining technique used in the clinical microbiology laboratory.
Define heat-fixing and explain its significance in microbial identification.
Succinctly describe the significance of Gram staining technique in microbial identification.
Outline the procedure involved in Gram staining technique.
Define Gram variable bacteria and Gram indeterminate bacteria.
What is the main function of lugols iodine in Gram staining technique?
Mention two decolourizing agents that can be used in the Gram staining technique.
When is stool culture required in microbiology analysis?
When is blood culture required in microbiology analysis?
Define bacteraemia, septicaemia and fungimia.
Describe the significance of urine culture technique in clinical diagnosis.
Mention four solid culture media that are universally used for urine culture technique.
Describe the importance of cystein lactose electrolyte deficient medium in urine culture.
What is the colonial and/or morphological appearance of Escherichia coli on MacConkey agar?
When is sputum culture recommended as a laboratory analysis?
Define and explain the importance of anaerobic jar.
Briefly describe the importance of the improve neubauer counting chamber in microbiology investigations.
Outline 5 procedures involved in semen microscopy.
What is the significance of semen culture?
Briefly describe sperm cell based on its motility.
What is the function of sodium bicarbonate formalin in semen microscopy?
Diagrammatically describe a sperm cell.
When is urogenital and/or vaginal swab recommended in microbiology analysis?
Mention the protozoan mostly implicated in vaginosis or vaginal infections.
What is satellitism?
Describe the satellitism test.
What does “X factor” and “V factor” stand for in the satellitism test?
Briefly describe the importance of parasitology laboratory in clinical diagnosis of parasitic diseases.
Differentiate between ectoparasites and endoparasites.
Define concentration technique and briefly describe any two concentration techniques used in parasitology laboratory.
Briefly describe the procedure involved in wet preparation of stool samples in the parasitology laboratory.
What is occult blood?
When is occult blood test (OBT) recommended in clinical diagnosis?
Why are patients meant for OBT asked to avoid eating meat or vegetables prior to the test?
Describe the importance of skin snip test.
What is the significance of nitrite in urine sample?
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
What is an antibody?
Mention the causative agent of syphilis and describe the significance of VDRL test in its diagnosis.
Widal test is used in the laboratory diagnosis of salmonella infections especially in typhoid and paratyphoid cases. This test looks out for the presence of “O” and “H” antigens in the patient’s serum. Define what “O” and “H” stands for.
Which titer value is said to be a significant titer value in Widal test?
Differentiate between streptolysin O and streptolysin S; and describe their significance in the serological diagnosis of streptococcus infection.
What is rheumatoid factor (RF)?
Describe briefly the rheumatoid factor (RF) test and its significance in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.
How does plasma differ from serum?
Define autoantibody and autoimmunity.
What is mycology?
What is the function of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in microscopical analysis of fungal specimens?
Why is Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) selective for only fungi?
What is the function of cycloheximide and chloramphenicol in SDA?
Describe the clinical significance of the germ tube test.
Succinctly define biochemical test and describe their significance in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.
Briefly define and describe coagulase test.
Outline the procedure involved in performing catalase test.
Describe briefly the biochemical test used for the identification of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the clinical microbiology laboratory.
Mention the name of the pH indicator found in citrate agar.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is urease positive and citrate positive. Briefly describe these two biochemical test.
What is the function of Durham’s tube in sugar fermentation test?
Write a short note on triple sugar iron agar (TSIA), nitrate reduction test and voges proskauer (VP) test.
With suitable examples, briefly describe the 3 types of haemolysis carried out by bacteria on blood agar plates.
Define amylase test.
Briefly describe methyl red (MR) test and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) test.