Immunology questions

  • Define immunology.
  • With examples briefly describe antigens.
  • What are antibodies?
  • Succinctly describe the human immune system.
  • What is immunity?
  • How does the body recognize a previous infection and mount attack against it.
  • Briefly describe how the field of immunology was started.
  • What are autoimmune diseases?
  • Define autoantibodies.
  • Some pathogenic microorganisms (e.g. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) are generally classified as intracellular pathogens. Explain this statement  and exhaustively discuss why immune response to such pathogens is different from immune response to other pathogens (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) which are not intracellular parasites.
  • What is adaptive immune system?
  • Describe in detail the effect of thymectomy in mouse.
  • Explain the cell-mediated immunity.
  • What is humoral immunity/antibody-mediated immunity?
  • Enumerate and state the functions of primary lymphoid organs in immune response.
  • Define haptens.
  • Describe in detail the effect of bursectomy in chicken.
  • What are immunogens?
  • What are epitopes?
  • Enumerate and state the functions of the secondary lymphoid organs in immune response.
  • How does immunogenicity differ from antigenicity?
  • Write a concise note on the characteristics of antigens.
  • How do exogenous antigens differ from endogenous antigens?
  • Diagrammatically describe an antibody.
  • Write a concise note on the different classes of antibodies.
  • Define agglutination.
  • What is opsonization?
  • Succinctly describe phagocytosis.
  • What are phagocytes?
  • What is the full meaning of the acronym ADCC?
  • Define affinity as it relates to antigen-antibody reaction.
  • What is an antigen-antibody reaction?
  • Define complement.
  • With examples, briefly describe the complement system.
  • Which class of antibody is abundantly found in body secretions?
  • Define colostrum and succinctly explain its immunological significance in newborns.
  • Why is immunoglobulin M generally referred to as a “pentamer”?
  • Which class of antibody is mainly involved in allergic/hypersensitivity reaction?
  • Describe complementarity determining regions (CDRs) as it relates to antigen-antibody reaction.
  • What is avidity?
  • Define cross-reactivity.
  • What is precipitation reaction?
  • Write the full meaning of the acronym “ELISA”; and succinctly explain its significance in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.
  • What is haematopoiesis?
  • With examples describe lymphocytes.
  • What are dendritic cells (DC)?
  • Write a concise note on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
  • Describe the three types of MHC molecules.
  • What are incompetent B cells?
  • In details, describe the process of B cell maturation in any organism of your choice.
  • What are effector cells?
  • Define clonal selection.
  • With examples, describe the primary lymphoid organs.
  • Using suitable examples, describe the secondary lymphoid organs.
  • What does “MALT” stand for?
  • What are hybridomas?
  • Define monoclonal antibodies.
  • How do monoclonal antibodies differ from polyclonal antibodies?
  • Describe innate immunity in details while giving examples of this type of invulnerability.
  • What is adaptive immunity?
  • Describe the four types of adaptive immunity.
  • What are toxoids?
  • Differentiate between primary immune response and secondary immune response.
  • In a tabular form, differentiate between innate immunity and adaptive immunity.
  • Define antigen presentation.
  • Mention the effector cells of humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity.
  • Define hypersensitivity reaction.
  • Succinctly describe the four types of allergic reactions.
  • Describe in details the immunological process of erythroblastosis fetalis.
  • Define inflammation and outline its characteristics.
  • What is transplantation?
  • What are reasons responsible for the failure of the immune system to the extent that autoimmune diseases develop?
  • What is graft versus host disease (GVHD)?
  • Define alloantigens.
  • Succinctly explain the different types of graft.

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