Written by MicroDok

Some of the basic precautions observed in vaccine usage are highlighted in this section. To ensure safety and efficacy of the vaccines being used for vaccination, it is vital to imbibe these safety measures o avoid predicament that may arise from vaccine usage.

  Do not administer vaccine if a child is sick or has fever.

  • Shake vaccine vials well to obtain a uniform, homogenous suspension prior to its actual administration into the body.
  • Do not use the vaccine if the suspension cannot be re suspended upon usage.
  • Store vaccine vials and syringes in the refrigerator at 2oC – 8oC, and as recommended.
  • Vaccines should not be frozen. And frozen vaccines should not be used for vaccination purposes but should be discarded.
  • Rotate the vaccine vial or syringe in the palm to bring it to room temperature before administration.
  • Spent and expired vaccine vials should be properly discarded according to the local waste management guidelines.


Acheson N.H (2011). Fundamentals of Molecular Virology. Second edition. John Wiley and Sons Limited, West Sussex, United Kingdom.

Alan J. Cann (2005). Principles of Molecular Virology. 4th edition. Elsevier Academic Press,   Burlington, MA, USA.

Alberts B, Bray D, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K and Walter P (1998). Essential Cell Biology: An Introduction to the Molecular Biology of the Cell. Third edition. Garland Publishing Inc., New York.

Balows A, Hausler W, Herrmann K.L, Isenberg H.D and Shadomy H.J (1991). Manual of clinical microbiology. 5th ed. American Society of Microbiology Press, USA.

Barrett   J.T (1998).  Microbiology and Immunology Concepts.  Philadelphia,   PA: Lippincott-Raven Publishers. USA.

About the author


Leave a Comment