Exam Questions / Microbiology

Epidemiology questions

Written by MicroDok
  • Define epidemiology.
  • Describe briefly the contribution of “Mary Mallon” in the development of the field of epidemiology.
  • Briefly describe the history of epidemiology.
  • Succinctly describe observational epidemiological study.
  • With examples describe descriptive epidemiological study.
  • Differentiate case report from case series as it applies to epidemiological study
  • Describe the medical significance of retrospective epidemiological studies.
  • What is odd ratio (OD)?
  • Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of retrospective epidemiological studies.
  • Define a cohort epidemiological study.
  • What is relative risk (RR) as it applies to epidemiological study?
  • Mathematically express attributable risk.
  • Outline the merits and demerits of prospective studies.
  • Briefly explain cross-sectional epidemiological study and its significance in clinical medicine.
  • Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of cross-sectional epidemiological studies.
  • When does ecological fallacy or bias occur in an epidemiological study?
  • Briefly describe ecological epidemiological studies and state its advantages and disadvantages.
  • Outline the sources of “cases” and “controls” for epidemiological studies.
  • Describe the medical significance of experimental epidemiological studies.
  • What is a placebo?
  • Outline the uses of experimental epidemiological studies.
  • Diagrammatically describe the epidemiological triad or triangle; and explain its medical significance in disease development and spread.
  • Briefly describe the environmental factors that influence disease development and spread.
  • Describe the host factors that influence disease development and spread in a community.
  • Define statistics and briefly explain its significance in the study of epidemiology.
  • How can immunity to a pathogen by a large proportion of the population protect the non-immune members of the population from acquiring a disease?
  • Different primary data from secondary data as it applies to statistical analysis.
  • What is public health?
  • Define health determinants and state their significance in disease spread and development.
  • Explain the medical significance of quarantine in disease control and prevention.
  • What is disease surveillance?
  • Define an outbreak.
  • Differentiate between antigenic shift and antigenic drift.
  • Who is a convalescent carrier?
  • What is the convalescent period of a disease?
  • Define mortality and morbidity.
  • Explain the terms incidence and prevalence as they apply to disease occurrence in a community.
  • What are health indicators?
  • Describe endemic diseases, epidemic diseases, pandemic diseases and sporadic diseases using suitable examples.
  • Define zoonosis and briefly explain its medical significance in the development and spread of infectious diseases in a particular community.
  • Briefly describe the terms virulence, pathogen, pathogenicity and infection.
  • What are opportunistic pathogens?
  • Using suitable examples describe notifiable diseases and state their medical public health importance.
  • Explain the terms signs, symptoms, and syndromes as they apply to infectious diseases.
  • Describe the terms carrier, reservoir, and infectivity period of a disease.
  • What is herd immunity?
  • Enumerate the ways of controlling and preventing zoonotic infections in human population.
  • Describe nosocomial infections and give examples of such infections caused by bacteria and fungi.
  • Describe in detail the characteristics of an infectious disease agent.
  • What is the difference between emerging and re-emerging diseases?
  • Will herd immunity work for diseases that have a common source such as water? Why or why not?
  • Describe the major medical and public health measures developed in the twentieth century that were instrumental for controlling the spread of infectious diseases in developed countries.
  • List with brief explanation five most common causes of mortality due to infectious diseases throughout the world. Are any of these diseases preventable by immunization? Explain.
  • Explain the difference between chronic carrier and acute carrier of an infectious disease.
  • Give example of host-to-host transmission of disease via direct contact and indirect host-to-host transmission of disease via vector agents and fomites.
  • Travelling to developing countries increases some exposure to infectious diseases. What general precautions should you take before, during and after visits to developing countries when you return from a foreign country to avoid the contraction and spread of infectious diseases?
  • What is remote sensing?
  • Describe briefly the importance of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) in the containment of infectious diseases.
  • What is bioterrorism?
  • Describe the terms chemical weapons, biological weapons, biosurveillance and biological warfare.
  • Enumerate the features of microbes used for biological warfare.
  • Write a short note on the different category of biological agents used for bioterrorism and give suitable examples of each category.
  • Describe in detail the different modes of transmission or delivery of biological/chemical weapons of mass destruction.
  • What does the biohazard sign signifies?
  • Succinctly describe how bioterrorism can be controlled, managed and prevented.

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