With examples describe descriptive epidemiological study.
Differentiate case report from case series as it applies to epidemiological study
Describe the medical significance of retrospective epidemiological studies.
What is odd ratio (OD)?
Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of retrospective epidemiological studies.
Define a cohort epidemiological study.
What is relative risk (RR) as it applies to epidemiological study?
Mathematically express attributable risk.
Outline the merits and demerits of prospective studies.
Briefly explain cross-sectional epidemiological study and its significance in clinical medicine.
Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of cross-sectional epidemiological studies.
When does ecological fallacy or bias occur in an epidemiological study?
Briefly describe ecological epidemiological studies and state its advantages and disadvantages.
Outline the sources of “cases” and “controls” for epidemiological studies.
Describe the medical significance of experimental epidemiological studies.
What is a placebo?
Outline the uses of experimental epidemiological studies.
Diagrammatically describe the epidemiological triad or triangle; and explain its medical significance in disease development and spread.
Briefly describe the environmental factors that influence disease development and spread.
Describe the host factors that influence disease development and spread in a community.
Define statistics and briefly explain its significance in the study of epidemiology.
How can immunity to a pathogen by a large proportion of the population protect the non-immune members of the population from acquiring a disease?
Different primary data from secondary data as it applies to statistical analysis.
What is public health?
Define health determinants and state their significance in disease spread and development.
Explain the medical significance of quarantine in disease control and prevention.
What is disease surveillance?
Define an outbreak.
Differentiate between antigenic shift and antigenic drift.
Who is a convalescent carrier?
What is the convalescent period of a disease?
Define mortality and morbidity.
Explain the terms incidence and prevalence as they apply to disease occurrence in a community.
What are health indicators?
Describe endemic diseases, epidemic diseases, pandemic diseases and sporadic diseases using suitable examples.
Define zoonosis and briefly explain its medical significance in the development and spread of infectious diseases in a particular community.
Briefly describe the terms virulence, pathogen, pathogenicity and infection.
What are opportunistic pathogens?
Using suitable examples describe notifiable diseases and state their medical public health importance.
Explain the terms signs, symptoms, and syndromes as they apply to infectious diseases.
Describe the terms carrier, reservoir, and infectivity period of a disease.
What is herd immunity?
Enumerate the ways of controlling and preventing zoonotic infections in human population.
Describe nosocomial infections and give examples of such infections caused by bacteria and fungi.
Describe in detail the characteristics of an infectious disease agent.
What is the difference between emerging and re-emerging diseases?
Will herd immunity work for diseases that have a common source such as water? Why or why not?
Describe the major medical and public health measures developed in the twentieth century that were instrumental for controlling the spread of infectious diseases in developed countries.
List with brief explanation five most common causes of mortality due to infectious diseases throughout the world. Are any of these diseases preventable by immunization? Explain.
Explain the difference between chronic carrier and acute carrier of an infectious disease.
Give example of host-to-host transmission of disease via direct contact and indirect host-to-host transmission of disease via vector agents and fomites.
Travelling to developing countries increases some exposure to infectious diseases. What general precautions should you take before, during and after visits to developing countries when you return from a foreign country to avoid the contraction and spread of infectious diseases?
What is remote sensing?
Describe briefly the importance of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) in the containment of infectious diseases.
What is bioterrorism?
Describe the terms chemical weapons, biological weapons, biosurveillance and biological warfare.
Enumerate the features of microbes used for biological warfare.
Write a short note on the different category of biological agents used for bioterrorism and give suitable examples of each category.
Describe in detail the different modes of transmission or delivery of biological/chemical weapons of mass destruction.
What does the biohazard sign signifies?
Succinctly describe how bioterrorism can be controlled, managed and prevented.