Mycoses are infections caused by pathogenic fungi. And they include superficial mycoses, cutaneous mycoses, subcutaneous mycoses, systemic or deep-seated mycosis and opportunistic mycoses. The name given to the different types of mycoses or fungal infections in humans usually depends on the affected tissue or parts of the body where the infecting or invading pathogenic fungi is localized in the body. However, other forms of fungal infections which are not directly caused by pathogenic fungi but their toxic products and the untoward reactions which they provoke in the affected host also exist. Such clinical conditions include mycotoxicoses and fungal allergies. Mycotoxicoses and fungal allergies are pathological conditions of some fungi, which are usually initiated following human contact with fungal spores and their toxins especially by eating food containing fungal mycotoxins or exotoxins from toxin-producing fungi. Mycotoxicoses are caused by mycotoxins (fungal exotoxins) produced by some fungal organisms that infest food especially cereals and grains that are poorly stored. It can also occur via the inhalation of fungal spores from the environment. Human mycotoxicoses are usually caused via the consumption of foods containing mycotoxins especially those of Aspergillus flavus. A. flavus is known to produce aflatoxins in food. Mycotoxins are produced in food on which the pathogenic fungus is growing, and the consumption of such fungus-toxin infested food leads to mycotoxicoses, a clinical condition similar to the actions of bacterial toxins. Apart from causing fungal disease, mycotoxicoses causes loss of revenue in the agricultural sector and the gross-domestic product (GDP) of agricultural-producing nations. It can also cause the rejection of mycotoxin-infested food products; increase the prices of food commodity in the market, cause food scarcity and other economic consequences in places where they occur.
Fungal spores are ubiquitously found in the environment; and their inhalation by individuals who are allergic to them can cause fungal allergies or hypersensitivity reactions. Most fungal allergies are occupational diseases and they mostly occur in people who always come in contact with fungal spores such as farmers and those that work in forests or places where fungal spores are constantly retained in dust particles as aerosols. Construction workers and builders may also be affected via the inhalation of fungal spores resulting from aerosolized dust particles containing infectious fungi. Asthma is a common example of the hypersensitivity reaction that follows the inhalation of potent fungal spores. Most fungal infections are occupationally-related i.e., they occur in people who work in a certain type of job such as construction workers, farmers, builders, forest workers and workers who are constantly exposed to dust and soil particles as aforementioned.
Other predisposing factors to fungal infection include the use of indwelling medical devices (for example, urine catheters and respirators), previous organ/tissue transplant, use of immunosuppressive drugs, prolonged antibiotic usage (which depletes the normal bacterial flora that prevent the overgrowth of fungi in the body), age of the individual and other underlying disease conditions (for example, HIV/AIDS and cancer) which impairs the host immune system. In terms of age factor, the elderly and newborns are more prone to some fungal infections because the immune system of these individuals is either decreasing (as seen in the elderly) or is being developed (as seen in neonates). Nevertheless, there are lesser fungal infections than bacterial related diseases because of the body’s natural resistance to fungal invasion. Most fungal infections (for example, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis and systemic candidiasis) are opportunistic diseases; and they mainly occur in people whose immune system has been compromised. Both the innate and acquired immunity of an individual plays vital roles in the prevention and containment of fungal infection in the body of a human host. Based on their portal of entry (such as nose, skin and eye), the type of infected tissue and the site of attack or infection, fungal mycoses are generally classified as superficial mycoses, cutaneous mycoses, subcutaneous mycoses, systemic mycoses and opportunistic mycoses (Figure 6.1).
The skin is the main barrier or biological boundary line between the human body and the outside environment. It protects the body from the entry of pathogenic microorganisms and from other external harmful activities. The skin regulates the body’s temperature, and it helps in the synthesis of vitamin D in man. The skin excretes nitrogenous wastes and CO2 via the excretion of sweat; and it also control environmental factors that affect deeper tissues of the body. It is the tissue that covers the outside surface of the body; it is also the site for the synthesis of vitamin D especially when exposed to sunlight. The human skin is the largest organ in the human body; and it is mainly made up of two main layers which are the epidermis and dermis aside other associated parts and cells (Figure 6.2).
Figure 6.1: Illustration of mycoses in the human body. The diagram illustrates the different organs and body sites that are attacked or invaded by pathogenic fungi. Cutaneous mycoses affect the hair, nails and within the skin; subcutaneous mycoses affects the skin surface, nails and hair while subcutaneous mycoses affects the underneath of the skin layer.
The epidermis is the interface between the body and the outside environment while the dermis is the part of the skin that provides physiological support for the interface. Most fungal infections especially superficial mycoses, subcutaneous mycoses and cutaneous mycoses including some opportunistic mycoses in immunocompromised individuals are usually manifested clinical as dermal inflammatory response on the outermost part of the body (i.e., the skin) of the affected individual. Figure 6.2 shows the different layers of the human skin, some of which are mainly attacked by pathogenic fungi. For superficial, cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses; the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissues of the skin respectively are mainly affected by different pathogenic fungi strains.
Figure 6.2: Illustration of the cross-section of human skin. The skin carries out a variety of functions in the body of vertebrates inclusive of humans. And it is a major site for the occurrence of superficial mycoses in humans.
6.1.1 SUPERFICIAL MYCOSES
Superficial mycoses are fungal infections which are only limited to the keratinized outer layer of the skin, hair and nails. They also affect the hair shaft. Superficial mycoses unlike other forms of mycoses rarely result in inflammatory reactions in the host but it is usually characterized by intense itching and peeling or scaling of the affected body site(s) especially the outer skin surface. They are self-limiting mycoses and benign in their action. Superficial mycoses are non-systemic fungal infections that only infect the surface layer of the skin, and they are usually associated to or caused by poor personal or environmental hygiene. Fungal organisms that cause superficial mycoses are the least known penetrating or invasive fungal species that cause mycoses in humans (Table 6.1). This is because they only colonize the keratinized outer layer of the skin especially the malpighian layer of the epidermis – which contains keratinocytes that produces the protein keratin (Figure 6.2). Superficial mycoses generally have no systemic or invasive effect on the body during or after prior infection with the causative agents.
Table 6.1: Synopsis of superficial mycoses
Superficial mycoses are contagious mycoses, and thus it can be transferred or spread in a defined human population via direct body contact with infected persons. People who share personal items of infected individuals such as bathing soap and towels or bed sheaths are at risk of catching superficial mycoses. Though most superficial mycoses are self-limiting and can heal on their own even without formal treatment, they can best be treated through a careful removal of the affected scalp of the skin or infected hairs and nails. Medical intervention is also required for proper treatment and management of superficial mycoses. Subcutaneous mycosis is common amongst children, adolescents and young people who may occasionally experience some level of poor personal hygiene in their lifetime especially during their early years of development. However, the disease is normally localized in underdeveloped or developing countries especially in places where personal and public hygiene is poor; and both children and adults are easily infected. Topical antifungal agents can be applied in some cases to hasten the healing process of the infection and thus inhibit fungal growth in the affected body sites. Nevertheless, proper personal and environmental hygiene is required to control infection with causative organisms of superficial mycoses.
6.1.2 CUTANEOUS MYCOSES
Cutaneous mycoses are fungal infections of the skin, nails and hairs; and they are mainly caused by dermatophytes. While superficial mycoses involves the outermost layers of the skin; cutaneous mycoses generally affects the epidermis layer of the skin i.e., the layer of the skin that underlies the outer skin surface (Figure 6.2). Cutaneous mycoses can also be called dermatophytoses or dermatomycoses since they are caused by dermatophytes. Dermatophytes are fungi that can degrade the keratinized tissues of living organisms including those of humans and animals. They are fungal organisms that cause fungal infection or diseases of the skin. As earlier said, the outer layer of the human skin is rich in keratin; an insoluble protein molecule produced by keratinocytes and commonly found in hairs, nails and skin scrapings including the feathers and hairs of other animals. Dermatophytes are moulds that mainly attack the non-living or dead keratinized tissues of the human and animal skin. Some of the notable infections caused by dermatophytes in humans include athlete’s foot, jock itch and ringworm or Tinea. Dermatophytes are moulds that cause cutaneous fungal infections in humans. And even though they may have the ability to penetrate or invade keratinized tissues of the skin, hair or nails; dermatophyte infection in humans are generally restricted to the nonliving cornified region of the epidermis that is closer to the outside environment.
Ringworm or Tinea is a communicable fungal infection very common amongst young children and adolescents (Figure 6.3). Adults are less susceptible to ringworm infection due to the fungistatic action of fatty acids in the sebum produced by their skin. Nevertheless, adults can also be infected by causative agents of ringworm. Tinea is mainly caused by specific fungal genera including Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton, which are all moulds. Generally, ringworm, which is a cutaneous mycoses is of various types. Tinea corporis is ringworm of the skin; Tinea capitis is ringworm of the scalp; Tinea cruris (also known as jock itch) is the ringworm of the groin; and Tinea pedis (also known as athlete’s foot) is ringworm of the feet (Table 6.2). Dermatophytes have high affinity for keratinized tissues of the body especially the epidermis of the skin where dead keratinized tissues are located.
Figure 6.3: Illustration of dermatophytoses (Ringworm) on the skin. A. Ringworm (Tinea) is caused by a fungal infection on the skin; and the infection is characterized by the formation of an erythematous scaling on the affected part of the skin (arrow). The phrase erythematous is from erythema, which means redness of the skin or mucous membrane. B. Bright field micrograph of Microsporum species, one of the causative agents of ringworm infection (dermatophytoses).
Table 6.2: Synopsis of cutaneous mycoses
Dermatophytes like the fungi that cause superficial mycoses are also among the least invasive fungal organisms because they do not penetrate deep tissues of the body but only colonize the keratinized outer layer of the skin especially the dead layers of the outer skin and other keratinized parts of the body. Dermatophytes that reside naturally in the soil are known as geophilic fungi (for example, Microsporum gypseum) while those whose natural habitat is animals such as cattle, horses, dogs and cats are known as zoophilic fungi (for example, Microsporum species including M. canis, M. gallinae, M. nanum and Trichophyton species including T. verrucosum and T. equinum). Anthropophilic fungi are dermatophytes that naturally reside on the body of humans (for example, Epidermophyton species and Trichophyton species); and they cause infection following the destabilization of the body’s normal flora.
Cutaneous mycoses are less-debilitating fungal infections even though they are prevalent in most parts of the world. They are contagious and can spread from person to person via direct body contact with infected persons. Animal-human contacts and the use of personal items of infected individuals such as bathing soaps, bathtub and towels are other predisposing factors to the acquisition of a dermatophyte infection. Dermatophytoses usually arise following inflammatory activities caused by the invading fungus on the site of infection, and this is normally seen as itching, irritating and erythematous scaling and skin discolouration at affected body sites. Generally, cutaneous mycoses are localized fungal diseases that do not disseminate or spread to other parts of the body, and their name corresponds to the particular site of the body that is affected (Table 6.2). Dermatophytoses can best be treated with topical and oral antifungal agents. Proper medical attention is usually required to bring the infection under control, since infection with dermatophytes may persist for some while in the affected individual.
Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum are the three main genera of fungi that are responsible for causing cutaneous mycoses and/or dermatophytosis in human population. Trichophyton species are spore formers and some notable species that produce both macroconidia and microconidia include T. rubrum with lateral microconidia and cylindrical macroconidia (Figure 6.4), T. metangrophytes with macroconidia and clustered grape-like microconidia (Figure 6.5), T. tonsurans with arthrospores, macroconidia and elongated microconidia (Figure 6.6), T. soudanense with reflective and branching arthrospores (Figure 6.7). On the other hand, Epidermophyton floccosum is unique because it is the only fungal pathogen present in the genus Epidermophyton. Epidermophyton floccosum produces a characteristic macroconidia which is club-shaped (Figure 6.8). It also produces chlamydospores that are attached to the fungal thallus (Figure 6.8). Microsporum species (dermatophytes of the skin and hair) including M. audouinii (Figure 6.9) and M. gypseum (Figure 6.10) produce characteristic multicellular macroconidia which aids in their identification from either environmental or clinical samples.
Figure 6.4: Microconidia and macroconidia of Trichophyton rubrum. MicroDok.
Figure 6.5: Microconidia and macroconidia of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. MicroDok.
Figure 6.6: Macroconidia and microconidia of Trichophyton tonsurans. MicroDok.
Figure 6.7: Trichophyton soudanense. MicroDok.
Figure 6.8: Macroconidia and chlamydospores of Epidermophyton floccosum. MicroDok.
Figure 6.9: Macroconidia and terminal chlamydospores of Microsporum audouinii. MicroDok.
Figure 6.10: Macroconidia of Microsporum gypseum. MicroDok.
6.1.3 SUBCUTANEOUS MYCOSES
Subcutaneous mycoses are fungal infections that affect the subcutaneous tissues below the skin, and the bone and other tissues occasionally. The subcutaneous tissue or layer is the part of the skin that lies beneath the skin and it contains large deposits of fats (for example, in the buttocks and thigh regions). Apart from affecting the subcutaneous tissues of the skin, subcutaneous mycoses also involve the dermis layer of the skin. Dermis is the thick inner layer of the skin that lies beneath the epidermis, and it is the main layer of living skin cells. Subcutaneous mycoses rarely involve deeper tissues of the body even though they extend beneath the tissues that underlie the skin. This type of mycoses occurs when certain pathogenic fungi that reside in the soil and on plantation are introduced into the body via trauma or skin injury. Subcutaneous mycoses include chromoblastomycosis (chromomycosis), sporotrichosis, mycetoma/madura foot (maduromycosis) and phaeohyphomycosis (Table 6.3). Chromoblastomycosis is caused by five recognized dematiaceous moulds which are Fonsecaea pedrosoi, F. compacta, Cladophialophora carrionii, Rhinocladiella aquaspersa and Phialophora verrucosa which form phialides. These fungi are the main causative agents of chromoblastomycosis in humans. Chromoblastomycosis is a widespread and globally distributed chronic fungal infection of the subcutaneous tissue and skin; and it is usually caused by the traumatic inoculation of some specific type of dematiaceous fungi as aforementioned, into the skin.
Microscopic illustrations of the mature and young phialides of P. verrucosa are shown in Figure 6.11 and Figure 6.12. The fungal agents that cause subcutaneous mycoses is numerous excluding sporotrichosis which is only caused by a particular fungus known as Sporothrix schenckii. S. schenckii is a dimorphic fungus that is found in the soil and on agricultural plantations. Sporotrichosis occur worldwide especially in tropical and subtropical countries; and the disease is initiated following an outdoor activity in which the fungus (S. schenckii) is traumatically inoculated into the host’s body via contaminated soil or materials. Granulomatous lesions are usually developed in the subcutaneous tissues that underlie the skin of S. schenckii infected individuals. These lesions may develop into an ulcerative lesion that is capable of dissemination via lymphatic vessels or bloodstream to other parts of the body. Deep mycoses involving S. schenckii is rare; and lymphatic drainage of the infection when it occurs usually results in the development of multiple lesions in the affected individual.
Table 6.3: Synopsis of subcutaneous mycoses
Sporotrichosis is an occupational disease that is very common amongst gardeners, farmers and horticulturists; and the disease is usually a self-limiting subcutaneous mycoses but treatment for the mycoses is usually done using oral antifungal agents (for example, itraconazole or ketoconazole), oral administration of saturated potassium iodide solution and by surgical removal of lesions or nodules.
Figure 6.11: Young phialides of Phialophora verrucosa. MicroDok.
Figure 6.12: Mature phialides of Phialophora verrucosa. MicroDok.
Most subcutaneous mycoses are occupational fungal diseases that mainly affect people who do or work in certain types of occupation such as miners, farmers, construction workers, gardeners, horticulturists, forest keepers and florists. This is because the group of fungi that causes subcutaneous mycoses (as shown in Table 6.3) is ubiquitously found in the soil and on plants as saprophytic organisms. They only infiltrate the human body by chance via wound infections on the skin or through abrasions and traumatic inoculation of the causative agent into the skin. Pathogenic fungi that cause subcutaneous mycoses enter the body through traumatic inoculation or wound injury involving sharp contaminated objects or materials containing the infecting fungal organisms. After inoculation, the fungi or fungus migrate to the subcutaneous connective tissues and lymphatic vessels of the body (especially those that underlies the skin) where they elicit local, self-limiting and chronic fungal infections that usually results in the formation of granulomatous lesions. Life-threatening infections associated with subcutaneous mycoses are rare in humans. But when deep or systemic mycoses due to subcutaneous fungal infection occur, the infections become broad and then affect other vital tissues and organs of the body such as the bones.
6.1.4 SYSTEMIC MYCOSES
Systemic mycoses are fungal infections that affect deep tissues and organs of the body; and they generally start off as pulmonary infections in affected individuals. Systemic mycoses can also be called endemic mycoses because of their geographic distribution; and they can also be called deep mycoses because of their disseminated form in the body. They are the most disseminating, deadly and severe forms of mycoses out of all the known forms of fungal mycoses in humans. Systemic mycoses generally involve the internal body organs of humans such as the lungs, heart, liver, bones and kidney; and they also show cutaneous and subcutaneous involvement when the infection is disseminated via the bloodstream. Systemic mycoses are mainly caused by dimorphic or diphasic fungi excluding Cryptococcosis neoformans (causative agent of cryptococcosis) which only exist in the yeast form. C. neoformans though a causative agent of systemic mycoses also causes opportunistic mycoses in immunocompromised people. Thus, agents of systemic (endemic) mycoses exist in two main forms: the yeast phase and the mould or mycelia phase. Systemic mycoses are usually limited to certain geographic location, and thus they are often referred to as endemic mycoses because they are usually prevalent in certain ecological niches of the world. The viable spores or conidia of causative agents of systemic mycoses grow at ambient temperatures (for example, 25oC) as moulds in the environment and as yeasts at body temperature (for example, 37oC) within the human host.
Spores of dimorphic fungi are easily aerosolized and this increases their infectious rate in nature. Systemic mycoses include histoplasmosis (caused by Histoplasma capsulatum), blastomycosis (caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis), coccidioidomycosis (caused by Coccidioides immitis) and paracoccidioidomycosis (caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis). Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides and Paracoccidioides are found in the fungal division Ascomycota. Brief details of systemic or endemic mycoses are shown in Table 6.4. Systemic mycosis is initiated following the introduction of fungal spores of some specific dimorphic fungi into the body via inhalation of dust or aerosols containing infectious fungal spores. The spores get into the lungs where they grow to cause primary mycosis (for example, pulmonary disease of the lungs) which is usually self-limiting and asymptomatic in some cases. However, extra-pulmonary mycosis can ensue when the disease becomes chronic and disseminated, affecting other vital organs of the body such as the skin, heart, liver and the kidney. Secondary systemic mycoses usually occur in people with compromised immunity. Systemic mycoses unlike some other fungal infections (for example, superficial mycoses) are rarely communicable in nature; and they may present with severe pathological symptoms.
Table 6.4: Synopsis of systemic (endemic) mycose
Agents of systemic (endemic mycoses) are ubiquitously found in the soil from where their viable spores or conidia become aerosolized to cause human infection after inhalation of infectious spores. However, an intact and strong immunity is vital to preventing systemic mycosis in humans. Systemic mycoses are mostly common amongst immunocompromised individuals and in people with other predisposing health conditions such as those on chemotherapy or transplant patients.
6.1.5 OPPORTUNISTIC MYCOSES
Opportunistic mycoses are fungal infections caused by opportunistic fungi that only affect people with weakened immune system. Severely sick individuals and debilitated patients with weakened immune system are more prone to infections with opportunistic fungal organisms. Opportunistic mycoses do not occur in healthy people. Opportunistic mycoses are fungal infections of the body which occur almost exclusively in debilitated patients whose normal defense mechanisms against infections are impaired; and they are usually caused by fungal organisms with moderate or low virulence nature. Such patients include those on chemotherapy, cancer patients, patients who use corticosteroids, organ transplant patients and patients with HIV/AIDS infection. The fungi that cause opportunistic mycoses are usually fungal organisms that have a very low inherent virulence as aforementioned; and thus lack the natural ability to cause infection in individuals whose immune system is still intact or strong. Only people with poor or compromised immunity are mostly affected by opportunistic fungi. Opportunistic mycoses include candidiasis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis, systemic penicilliosis and pneumocystis pneumonia and cryptococcosis (Table 6.5). It is noteworthy that all opportunistic mycoses are exogenous infections acquired from the environment via the inhalation of viable fungal spores excluding candidiasis which is endogenous because the causative agent (C. albicans) is normally a part of the host’s normal microflora.
Table 6.5: Synopsis of opportunistic mycoses
6.1.6 ORAL THRUSH (ORAL CANDIDIASIS)
Oral thrush (oral candidiasis) is a localized fungal infection caused by C. albicans in the oral cavity of humans such as the tongue, lips and gums. Oral thrush is a fungal infection of the mouth; and thrush or oral thrush is an infection of the mouth caused by the Candida fungus which is a yeast cell. Oral candidiasis is characterized by the formation of whitish mucoid plaques on the mucous membranes of the mouth; and the infection is known as endogenous mycoses because the causative agent (C. albicans) is part of the normal flora of the human body, found especially in the gut, mouth and respiratory tract. Mycoses due to Candida species in humans occur following the suppression of the body’s immunity (for example, in HIV/AIDS individuals). Other predisposing factors such as prolonged antibiotic usage and the use of immunosuppressive drugs are other risk factors to the development of oral candidiasis in humans. Oral candidiasis is strictly opportunistic mycoses that develop in people with poor immunity. The disease can also occur in newborns delivered via Candida infected birth canal (vagina) of already infected women. It is noteworthy that candidiasis in newborns is not an endogenous fungal infection but a contracted disease that occurs in infants from mother to child especially when the birth canal or vagina is heavily contaminated with C. albicans. This type of infection only occurs in newborns as a result of mother-to-child transmission of the infection. Vulvovaginitis is a common Candida infection in pregnant women, and it is usually characterized by itching and irritation and discharge from the vagina of affected women. Oral thrush (which can also be known as mouth thrush) is one type of candidiasis in humans. Other clinical forms of candidiasis include vaginal candidiasis, cutaneous candidiasis, mucosal and mucocutaneous candidiasis and systemic candidiasis. Other yeasts of medical importance aside Candida species include Saccharomyces species, Torulopsis species and Cryptococcus species.
Candida albicans is responsible for most of the candidiasis episodes in humans. Generally, Saccharomyces species are generally known as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) organisms – because they are used in food production and they are also important production organism in most medical, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications. GRAS organisms are not pathogenic in nature; they are safe to humans; and they possess little or no pathologic effect in humans or animals. However, S. cerevisiae is a colonizer of mucosal surfaces of the body; and it is also a normal flora of the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Infections due to S. cerevisiae are mostly notable in immunocompromised individuals; and the organism is mostly implicated in causing fungaemia (presence of yeast or fungi in the blood). Other Candida species such as C. kruzei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. guillermondii can also cause mild candida infections in humans. Candida infection is not limited to the mouth; and thus, it can occur in other parts of the body including the vagina of women. Small amounts of Candida albicans are present in the mouth, digestive tract, and skin of most healthy people; and this beneficial fungus are normally kept in check by other bacteria (which are normal microflora) in the body. However, stress, diseases and the use of medications such as antibiotics, birth control pills and corticosteroids can disturb the natural balance of the fungus in the body. This will cause C. albicans to grow out of control and cause thrush in the affected host. The use of such medications weakens the immune system and cause Candida to thrive. Nystatin, fluconazole, amphotericin B and itraconazole can be used to treat thrush.
Anaissie E.J, McGinnis M.R, Pfaller M.A (2009). Clinical Mycology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. London.
Bačkorová M, Jendželovský R, Kello M, Bačkor M, Mikeš J, Fedoročko P (2012). Lichen secondary metabolites are responsible for induction of apoptosis in HT-29 and A2780 human cancer cell lines. Science Direct, 26(3)462-468.
Baumgardner D.J (2012). Soil-related bacterial and fungal infections. J Am Board Fam Med, 25:734-744.
Beck R.W (2000). A chronology of microbiology in historical context. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press.
Calderone R.A and Cihlar R.L (eds). Fungal Pathogenesis: Principles and Clinical Applications. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2002.
Chakrabarti A and Slavin M.A (2011). Endemic fungal infection in the Asia-Pacific region. Med Mycol, 9:337-344.
Champoux J.J, Neidhardt F.C, Drew W.L and Plorde J.J (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology: An Introduction to Infectious Diseases. 4th edition. McGraw Hill Companies Inc, USA.
Chung K.T, Stevens Jr., S.E and Ferris D.H (1995). A chronology of events and pioneers of microbiology. SIM News, 45(1):3–13.