Category “C” Biological Agents

Category “C” Biological Agents are the third highest priority biological agents that present no immediate security and public threat because they are still evolving microbes. They are biological agents which at the moment do not present a high risk of bioterrorism to the general public but on the other hand could materialize as potential biologic threat in the future. Agents in Category “C” are referred to as emerging pathogens with a potential for high morbidity and mortality, and information regarding their epidemiology and pathogenicity is still arcane because they are emerging diseases. Though they have not been previously used in bioterrorism as some agents in Categories “A and B”, biological agents in Category “C” can be easily accessed due to their availability and ease of production and dissemination; and these can be genetically engineered to produce potent biologic material for mass destruction in human or animal population.

Examples of biological agents in Category “C” include:

  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
  • Influenza A (H5N1).
  • Nipah virus.
  • HIV/AIDS.
  • Multidrug resistant tuberculosis.
  • Mycotoxin-producing fungi.

References

Riedel S (2004). Biological warfare and bioterrorism: a historical overview. BUMC Proceedings, 17:400-406.

Poupard J. A and Miller L. A (1992). History of biological warfare: catapults to capsomeres. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 666:9–20.

Klietmann W.F and Ruoff K.L (2001). Bioterrorism: implications for the clinical microbiologist. Clin. Microbiol. Rev, 14(2)364-381.

Health and Safety Executive (HSE) (2002). Control of Substances Hazardous to Health: Approved Codes of Practice, 4th edition. HSE Books. Sudbury.

Guillemin J (2006). Scientists and the history of biological weapons. European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) Reports, Vol 7, Special Issue: S45-S49.

Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. 5th edition. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. National Institute of Health. HHS Publication No. (CDC) 21-1112.2009.

Porta M (2008). A dictionary of epidemiology. 5th edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nelson K.E and Williams C (2013). Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Theory and Practice. Third edition. Jones and Bartleh Learning.

Murray P.R., Rosenthal K.S., Kobayashi G.S., Pfaller M. A. (2002). Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Mosby Publishers, Chile.

Murray P.R, Baron E.J, Jorgensen J.H., Pfaller M.A and Yolken R.H (2003). Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 8th edition. Volume 1. American Society of Microbiology (ASM) Press, Washington, D.C, U.S.A.

Murray P.R, Baron E.J, Jorgensen J.H., Pfaller M.A and Yolken R.H (2003). Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 8th edition. Volume 2. American Society of Microbiology (ASM) Press, Washington, D.C, U.S.A.

Mandell G.L, Bennett J.E, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases,  5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2002.

Madigan M.T., Martinko J.M., Dunlap P.V and Clark D.P (2009). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 12th edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings Inc, USA.

 

 

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *